It is the excess weight you have compared to your ideal body weight. Apart from malnutrition and disruption of body energy balance, it may be caused by genetic, hormonal, and psychological reasons and food allergies.
Ideal Body Weight: Lorentz - Vandervael Formula
Calculated as follows:
Female: 50 kg + (height cm - 150) x 0.6
Male: 50 kg + (height cm - 150) x 0.7
Obesity caused by food allergies can be detected with the iMMOPRO300 TEST.
Criteria Determining Overweight
The most common measurement is body mass index. (BMI - Body Mass Index)
BMI values are calculated as kg / m2.
For example, the BMI for a woman with a weight of 85 kg and a height of 1.75 cm is 27.7.
- Below 5 kg / m2 - Underweight
- Between 5-24.9 kg / m2 - Normal
- Between 25.0-29.9 kg / m2 - Overweight
- Between 30.0-34.9 kg / m2 - Obese
- Between 0-39.9 kg / m2 - Extremely Obese
- Above 0 kg/m2 - Morbidly Obese.
- Waist Circumference Measurement
- Waist circumference should be between 94 - 102 cm for males / should be between 80 - 88 cm for females.
Waist To Hip Ratio
A waist To Hip ratio of less than 0.7 is considered normal. Waist To Hip ratio over 0.8 in females and over 1.0 in males indicate being overweight.
Triceps or subscapular SFT can also be used alone or together.
Over 300 mm in females and over 20 mm in males defines as overweight.
Body Fat Distribution
Fat, which is stored in our body, are triglycerides that make up adipose tissue.
Adipose tissue is between 20% and 27% of the body weight of an adult woman and between 12 and 15% of the body weight of an adult male. The distribution of adipose tissue in the body varies between men and women.
Android Type: It is the accumulation of fat on the upper part of the body (apple shape).
Gynoid Type: It is the accumulation of fat in the lower part of the body (pear shape). The pear shape is more common in women.
Energy Intake = When the Energy Spent balance is disturbed, the excess of energy taken causes an increase in adipose tissue. New lipids are added to fat cells (hypertrophy) or new fat cells are synthesized, increasing the number of cells (hyperplasia). Thus, weight gain occurs.
Hyperplasia: It is part of the growth process in children and adults.
Hypertrophy: Weight gain in adulthood is usually in the form of cell enlargement.
Weight loss is difficult in hyperplasic obesity and the lost weight can be regained quickly. Obesity emerges as a health problem, especially during menopause, as the basal metabolic rate decreases with age. The shift of BMI from 25% to 27% during menopause has a positive effect on the risk of osteoporosis due to the estrogen stored in the fat cells. For this reason, obesity should not be confused with being plump.
Diseases Caused by Overweight
- Cardiovascular Diseases: In a study conducted in the USA, more than one hundred thousand women were followed up for sixteen years and death from cardiovascular disease was found four times more in women with a BMI greater than 29 kg/m2 compared to those with a BMI of less than 21 kg/m2.
- High Blood Pressure: Hypertension with blood pressure higher than 140/90 mm/Hg is an important risk source for cerebrovascular diseases. Each kilogram loss lowers blood pressure by 2 mm/Hg.
- Diabetes: The prevalence of diabetes is 30% higher in overweight women than in those with a normal weight, starting from middle age. Two out of every hundred people in Turkey are diabetic.
- Cancer: It was determined that different types of cancer are related to obesity. Postmenopausal breast cancer and ovarian cancer are among them. It should not be forgotten that cancer cells feed on fat cells. Low fluid consumption also increases the risk of bladder, prostate, and testicular cancer.
- Reflux: One of the important reasons for the relaxation of the valve between the stomach and the esophagus is overweight.
- Gallstone: Between the ages of 20-60, the incidence of gallstones in women is three times higher than in men. Age, obesity, and frequent birth increase the incidence of gallstones.
- Kidney Stone: Being overweight due to lack of fluid intake and malnutrition is one of the causes of kidney stone formation.
- Gout: It is an inflammatory disease that occurs in the joints as a result of excessive accumulation of uric acid, which is the final waste product of excess protein foods taken into the body, and its entry into the joint spaces.
- Infertility: Hormonal overweight can cause infertility in both men and women.
- Depression: Depression is common with weight gain, especially during menopause. Nutrition education in this period can prevent the emergence of problems.
- Hernia in Waist-Neck: Osteoporosis triggered by malnutrition may be the cause of herniated discs.
- Asthma: As the lung capacity decreases with overweight, breathing and climbing stairs become difficult. The susceptibility to allergies increases.
Ways to Avoid Being Overweight
Nutrition is a physiological, psychological, and sociological phenomenon that begins in the womb. Adequate and balanced nutrition is important from the period in the mother's womb. Therefore, pregnant women should be educated about pregnancy nutrition.
- Knowing the height-weight measurement and body fat ratio suitable for our age,
- Checking whether the hormones are functioning correctly,
- Learn coping techniques such as meditation and yoga,
- Increasing physical activity,
- Not skipping meals,
- Giving importance to intermediate meals,
- Obtaining a test for a food allergy,
- Knowing the genetic structure,
- Taking the right nutrients in the right amount and at the right time, collaborating with a dietitian for this, and restructuring nutritional habits,
- Paying attention to sleep hours,
- Ensuring good functioning of the excretory system.