After determining the causes of obesity in Yeditepe University Hospital Obesity Surgery Clinic, patients are evaluated by a coordinated teamwork consisting of a physician experienced in the field of surgery, an endocrinologist, and a nutrition and diet specialist. In this system, which is also called a multidisciplinary approach, specialties such as Obesity Surgery, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Nutrition and Diet, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, and Psychology evaluate the patient and shape the treatment process.
In addition, necessary equipment including advanced technologies and intensive care facilities are also available.
What is Obesity?
“Having more than a certain amount of fat in our body is called obesity. This ratio is determined by a calculation that includes our height and weight. This is called body mass index (BMI). However, body type and the amount of muscle in the body are also considered when defining obesity.
If the body mass index is over 40 in kg/m2, it can be said that the person has a weight that can be considered a disease. This condition is also known as morbid obesity. People with a BMI (body mass index) value over 35 and those with additional weight-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and sleep apnea are considered obese patients requiring treatment.
Today, it is accepted that obesity causes diseases that shorten human life. It is known that obesity poses a risk in problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, kidney diseases, joint disorders, and increases the incidence of some types of cancer.”
What is Obesity Surgery, and Why and When Is It Necessary?
“Obesity surgery, also known as bariatric surgery, is the common name of surgical procedures in which obese patients lose weight and changes are made to the digestive system. Today, the most effective treatment of obesity is provided by surgical methods. In the treatment of many diseases, these patients are advised to lose weight in order to prolong their lifespan and improve their quality of life, which is negatively affected by obesity-related diseases.
The healthiest way to lose weight is through changes in diet and physical activity. If patients fail to lose weight despite this, they are evaluated in terms of obesity surgery. Whether a patient is a suitable candidate for surgery is decided by taking the evaluations of specialists from the departments of endocrinology, psychiatry, chest diseases, internal diseases, and cardiology.
Who Can Undergo Obesity Surgery?
“Patients with a body mass index over 40 kg/m2 and those with obesity-related diseases and a body mass index over 35 kg/m2 are evaluated in terms of surgical treatment if they have tried many other weight loss methods and failed to lose weight. Although it varies depending on the clinical characteristics and performance of the patient, patients between the ages of 18-65 are candidates for surgery if they will continue their clinical follow-ups, comply with postoperative recommendations, do not have major psychiatric diseases, are not substance abuser, and do not have underlying diseases that can be treated medically and cause obesity.”
What are the Benefits of Obesity Surgery to the Patient?
“Obesity surgery provides more successful weight loss than other treatment methods. Although the reduction in the amount of food taken and the restriction of nutrient absorption are the main factors, the differences in the hormones that provide the feeling of hunger and satiety also contribute to weight loss through the feeling of hunger and overeating. In addition, it becomes easier for the person to adapt to the changes that he/she needs to make in his/her diet. The number and type of bacteria in the intestine differ after obesity surgery. For this reason, bacterial metabolites that work between the intestine and the brain show beneficial changes. The sense of social and psychological trust makes it easier to resist the urge to eat more than necessary.
By treating obesity after obesity surgery, the risk for many health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurological diseases, sleep apnea, kidney diseases, joint diseases, and fatty liver is reduced.
In addition, thanks to the weight control provided after obesity surgery, the incidence of many cancers such as colon cancer, uterine cancer, and colorectal cancer is reduced. Being at a healthier weight contributes to improved quality of life. Reducing the problems of comorbidities also positively affects the lifespan.”
Why Is Obesity Surgery More Effective Than All Other Treatments?
In the treatment of obesity, if it becomes successful, the healthiest method is diet and physical activity. However, even the best results in morbidly obese patients have not achieved success over the rate of 5%. Obesity surgeries limit the amount of food taken with the reduction of the volume of the stomach. In addition, although the feeling of hunger is not the same in every patient, it enters a honeymoon period of one year and decreases. It becomes easier for the patient to adapt to the weight loss diet. Eating habits are one of the most important problems of obesity and the patient's nutritional behavior changes after surgery. With the changes in some hormones in the small intestine, the nervous system also helps the patient to lose weight. Changes in the intestinal microflora after bypass surgeries contribute to weight loss.
What Are the Surgical Options Applied in Obesity Surgery?
Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
Mini-gastric Bypass Surgery
Small Intestine Bypass Surgery with Gastric Sleeve